dilluns, de novembre 23, 2009

Oral Vitamin B12 for the treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency: A Systematic Review

Wales 2005

Cost of intramuscular versus oral vitamin B12 in Primary Care

Glasgow 2004

Curs de Comunicació Científica

Manresa 2008

Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains

Barcelona 2009

Public Health Implications of Contaminated Land

Wales 2006

Oral Vitamin B12 for the treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency: A Systematic Review

WONCA. Orlando 2004

dilluns, de setembre 07, 2009

Swine influenza. Comunicating Risk

Risk perceptions

Risks are generally more worrying if perceived:

· To be involuntary

· As inequitably distributed, some benefit while others suffer

· As inescapable by taking personal precautions

· To arise from an unfamiliar or novel source

· To result from man-made, rather than natural sources

· To cause hidden and irreversible damage with onset many years later

· To pose particular danger to small children or pregnant women or more generally future generations

· To threaten a form of death (or illness/injury) arousing particular dread

· To damage identifiable rather than anonymous victims

· To be poorly understood by science

· As subject to contradictory statements from responsible sources (or even worse, from the same source, or from untrustworthy source.

· Invisible or undetectable, catastrophic, memorable, uncertain, uncontrollable or unethical risk.

Explaining risks: risk comparisons

Comparisons between risks are not always unhelpful. Responsible use of comparative figures requires careful thought.

No single approach or combination of approaches has yet been determined to be the most useful or appropriate under different circumstances. The effectiveness of risk communication efforts vary depending on the subject matter, decision alternatives, intended audience, and other factors.

Examples of risk of death from involuntary risks (warning: use of this data for risk comparison purposes can severely damage your credibility, use with caution).


Risk of death (person/year)


1 in 5,000


1 in 12,500

Struck by an automobile

1 in 16,600

Being murdered

1 in 100,000

Bites of venomous creatures

1 in 5 million


1 in 10 million

Falling aircraft

1 in 50 million


Josep Vidal i Alaball

L’evidència suggereix que el virus no sobreviu gaire temps en superfícies o objectes tous, tot i que pot sobreviure fins a 24 hores en superfícies sòlides.

Supervivència del virus

· Superfícies dures i no poroses (acer inoxidable, plàstic): el virus pot sobreviure fins a 72 hores, però només 24 hores en quantitats suficients per significar risc d’infecció.

· Superfícies toves/mobiliari (roba, mocadors, mocadors de paper, revistes): el virus pot sobreviure fins a 12 hores, però només 15 minuts en quantitats suficients per significar risc d’infecció.

· Una vegada el virus es troba a les mans, sobreviu menys de 5 minuts

· Netejar-se les mans amb aigua i sabó (i assecar les mans) és una manera efectiva d’eliminar els virus de les mans.

· El virus és eliminat en 30 segons amb l’alcohol de mans

Neteja i desinfecció

El virus és fàcilment eliminat amb els productes de neteja habituals i detergents. Aigua amb detergent preparada de nou s’ha d’utilitzar per la neteja de superfícies. Consultoris i espais públics com ascensors i taulells de recepció haurien de ser desinfectades al menys 1 cop al dia. La pols s’hauria de treure amb draps humits.